Welcome to NELTA ELT Forum, October Issue, 2017!


Dear Valued Readers,

As we all know, continuing professional development (CPD) is an important aspect of any professional lives. Teaching being a professional activity, teachers need to be engaged in CPD to ensure that they remain competitive in their profession. CPD is an unceasing process and continues throughout the teachers’ profession. In the context of English as a foreign language (EFL), CPD is even more pertinent and significant because, in our case, teachers have limited structured resources to support them in their profession. We always have drawn on multiple sources (mostly external ones) to remain competent in the business. Of those different sources, sharing of ideas and tips amongst teachers has an important place in our practice.

NELTA, being a professional organisation of EFL teachers, always encourages teachers to share their good practices and ideas such that we can create discussions and promote context suitable knowledge. For the same, this issue of NELTA features write-ups by teachers of different backgrounds.

The first article by Gobinda Puri is on alternative activities for teachers’sustainable professional development. This article lists a few alternative but sustainable activities that teachers can engage in to continue their professional development.

The second piece, “The discursive psychology of ‘broken English”, by Dmitri Detwyler sheds light on the popular term in EFL, ‘broken English’. Mr Detwyler argues that broken English is a common feature of environments in which English learning is a central preoccupation. He further argues how the use of broken English reflects the complex psychological work in conversation.

The third article by Krishna Prasad Parajuli is entitled “Mobile Learning: Some Convenient Ways to Digitize the Nepalese Classroom”. In this piece, by drawing on his experience, Mr Parajuli argues how the use of mobile could help teachers/lecturers in their pedagogical practices.

In the fourth write-up, entitled “Seeding MOOC in Schools in Nepal: Teacher, Not a Sisyphus”, Baman Kumar Ghimire draws on his experience of championing massive open online courses (MOOCs) in Nepal to discuss how they could support EFL teachers learners in their pedagogical practices. He presents the advantages and challenges of MOOCs for school teachers and students in the local context.

The final article entitled “The need for integrating spoken grammar in the Nepalese ELT course and material design” by Anu Upadhyaya argues why there is a need to assimilate spoken grammar in ELT course and materials. She discusses how such integration might help Nepalese learners of English to communicate naturally with fluency and accuracy in spoken discourse.

For your ease, we have hyperlinked each entry below:

  1. Alternative activities for teachers’ sustainable professional development by Gobinda Puri
  2. The discursive psychology of broken English by Dmitri Detwyler
  3. Mobile Learning: Some ways to digitize the Nepalese classroom – Krishna Parajuli
  4. Seeding MOOC in schools in Nepal: Teacher not a Sisyphus by Baman Ghimire
  5. The need for integrating spoken grammar in the Nepalese ELT course and material design by Anu Upadhyaya

We hope that you enjoy reading the October Issue of NELTA ELT FORUM. As always we welcome any feedback and comment. Happy Reading.

Issue Editors
Suman Laudari
Pramod K. Sah


Alternative Activities for Teachers’ Sustainable Professional Development





*Gobinda Puri


“Every teacher needs to improve, not because they are not good enough, but because they can be even better,” said Dylan William, a British Educationist. As said in the quote, the teacher has to continue learning to make his/her profession creative, enthusiastic, interesting and rewarding as a part of professional development. This article attempts to present some major alternative activities and techniques for teacher professional development giving details how a teacher can groom professionally. It begins with brief introduction of PD and explores some practical activities to keep teachers updated and engaging in his profession. Moreover, it emphasizes the collaborative techniques, MOOCs, Webinar and Teachers Support Groups for sustainable teachers’ professional development.

Keywords: Collaborative techniques, MOOCs, online courses, TPD, teachers support groups, webinar


Teaching English as a foreign language provides a career for thousands of teachers worldwide, and the vast educational enterprise of English language teaching could not operate effectively without the dedication and effort of such teacher day-by-day and year-by-year throughout their careers. Maintaining the interest, creativity, and enthusiasm of teachers in their profession is one of the challenges faced by the government, program coordinators, school principals, and teacher-educators. Teachers need to expand their roles and responsibilities over time if they are to continue to find language teaching rewarding, and it is the responsibility of schools, government agencies and other educational institutions to provide opportunities for teachers to develop longer-term career goals and opportunities over time. Hoa & Van Anh (2015) assert that the field of language teaching is subject to rapid changes, both as the profession responds to new educational paradigms and trends and as institutions face new challenges as a result of changes in curriculum, national tests, and student needs. As a result, teachers need regular opportunities to update their professional knowledge and skills, that is, their opportunities for professional development.

Language teaching is an exciting profession where we can sustain and enjoy our professional life because it is valued much in comparison to others. It can be made more beautiful and respectful profession through various TPD activities. To be specific, teaching the English language can be made more charming being involved in the activities like online learning, webinars, and teacher support groups.

In recent days, teachers in Nepal have been blamed for being involved in political and trade affairs, and not being professional. It is said that the teachers normally do not engage in professional development activities in private institutions because they think that their jobs are not secured and they take teaching as an only transitional job. The teachers in public institutions think that they have already got the jobs and no one terminates them even if they do not involve in professional activities. So, they may not think that it is necessary to carry out the professional activities much. However, the government has made some provisions to recognize their research and publications during recruitment and promotion. TU service commission has allocated the marks for the research article published in newspapers or journal. Similarly, teachers’ service commission examination has also allocated marks for Action Research during the promotion. Continue reading →

The Discursive Psychology of ‘Broken English’

                                                                                                *Dmitri Detwyler


The adjective ‘broken’ is often used to describe the English competence of self or others, especially in places like Nepal where English is the first language of relatively few people. What is happening when speakers use this ‘broken English’ discourse in conversation? What might speakers be using it to do? This brief essay considers several possibilities and their consequences, with recommendations for English language teachers especially to refrain from using this description in their practice.

Keywords: broken English, world Englishes, psychological, expanding and outer circle  


The discourse of ‘broken English’, or the figurative use of the adjective ‘broken’ to describe one’s linguistic competence, is a common feature of environments in which English learning is a central preoccupation; for instance, in expanding (e.g., Nepal, China, South Korea) and outer-circle (e.g., India, Pakistan, Singapore) countries as described by Kachru, Kachru, and Nelson (2006) in the world Englishes paradigm. In this essay, this phrase will be considered as representative of a broader class of simplistic and usually negative absolute descriptions, such as ‘poor English’, ‘bad English’, and so on. Most of the discussion, except for a brief consideration of the metaphorical aspect of brokenness more than a simple assessment of competence, is, in fact, a form of social action that performs complex psychological work in conversation. The implications of this conception should be of special interest to language teachers, who because of their profession tend to both use and encounter the use of English language in daily life more than most others do. This is especially true in places like Nepal, where English remains the home language of relatively few people, even as it gains social importance.

We will begin our analysis from a formal semantic perspective. As an adjective, ‘broken’ offers a number of possible definitions for modifying the noun ‘English’. The most precise is the sense of “imperfectly spoken” or “spoken in a halting or fragmentary manner, as under emotional strain” (“Broken”, n.d.), as in “he asked the doctors in a broken voice what had happened to his child”. This is a rather specialized and sophisticated usage, arguably likely to be familiar to only a subset of second language users. The key point is the sense of strain, which is temporary; once it passes, the ability should return to some normal level. If no such temporary difficulty is present, then another interpretation might be more appropriate. One alternative arguably familiar to a greater proportion of second language users is “not functioning properly; out of working order” (“Broken”, n.d.), which invokes a mechanistic metaphor, as in ‘a broken clock’. This sense suggests a continuing or persistent condition of malfunction. And because machines do not repair themselves, but must rather be repaired, it prompts the question of agency: just who is capable of performing the necessary repair?

This rudimentary discourse analysis already reveals itself to have at least one obvious limitation: we have thus far considered only a fragment of text, removed from any context, and represented also as text rather than speech. Even from a semantic perspective, some level of context is required to establish which of the senses of ‘broken’ might have been intended, and therefore enable us to understand its interactional effects for the speakers. What are they ‘doing’ by their use of this discourse? What is needed here, in other words, is a framework for thinking systematically about spoken discourse as oriented to action in context. One such framework is provided by ‘discursive psychology’, which considers context on three levels: first the interactional context, such as a language classroom or the principal’s office; second, one or more rhetorical ‘frames’, which can be understood as each person’s version of reality, and which speakers promote through rhetorical moves; and third, the sequence of turns, or what was said before and following (Wiggins, 2016). While these levels interact to some degree and the most relevant for analysis will depend on the question to be answered, all discourse is to be understood as oriented towards action; put another way, words are not only for thinking but for doing, in specific situations (Wiggins, 2016). It should be clear by now that in order to analyze the ‘broken English’ discourse from this perspective, more detailed data will be needed. I now provide two examples that are composites of interactions I have observed as a teacher of English as an additional language in Taiwan, the U.S., and Canada. I believe they will also be recognizable to most teachers of English in Nepal. While authentic data of specific, situated interaction would be even more fruitful, I hope that these composites are sufficient to suggest a range of analytic possibilities that language teachers might wish to consider for their practice. Continue reading →

Mobile Learning: Some Convenient Ways to Digitize the Nepalese Classroom

*Krishna Prasad Parajuli


In this short article, the author reflects on his own mobile learning practices to share with the readers how he developed insights into the digital world of learning. Then, he reviews the research that he conducted in 2014; on mobile learning practices of undergraduate students, from semi-urban and rural areas of Gorkha, who did not have regular access to the computer and broadband internet connection. He further discusses mobile learning practices among undergraduate students in his class. Finally, he considers the potential for supporting undergraduate students to facilitate more productive mobile learning practices.

Keywords: Mobile learning, undergraduates, digital resources


Integration of digital technology has been a major issue in contemporary educational discourse. Following the global trends of including information and communication technology in the education systems, many schools and campuses in Nepal have established computer labs with internet connections. While some of these schools have utilised the computer labs successfully and students have been benefitted, most schools from rural and semi-urban areas have not yet been able to do so. One of the reasons for such failure is that traditional computer-based learning labs are very expensive to run in rural areas. The barrier of costs, installation, technical support, transportation, maintenance, training, stable power supply, and internet connectivity are major challenges to operating computer labs smoothly in the schools.

Traditional computer labs provide students with access to digital resources within the fixed learning hours. However, such labs do not provide them with the freedom of learning “anytime anywhere”. The last census reported that by 2011 only 7.28 % households had access to a computer (Central Bureau of Statistics, 2013, p. 14). This shows that the majority of students do not have access to a computer in their homes either.

On the other hand, mobile penetration among the population in Nepal reached 126.44% in April 2017. (Nepal Telecommunications Authority, August 2017). Access to a mobile phone network and the decreasing cost of modern, powerful smartphones have opened greater opportunities for enhancing our teaching-learning through digital technology.   Mobile phones can potentially enhance or language learning given that it is used strategically in the classroom.

The ways and purposes of using mobile phones have drastically changed today. For example, I only used my mobile phone to make phone calls and send text messages with my first phone in 2005. This was when I was doing my Masters’ degree. I do not remember its academic uses except making a few calls to my friends to keep track of courses. I started to teach in a college in 2007. The college had few computers, and they were not connected to the internet. I bought a Nokia 6300 mobile set in 2008. It was special for me because it had an internet connection and I could search the content on the web. Although it had a small screen, I could use it as a minicomputer. The second year of my college teaching was greatly enhanced by my mobile phone. Continue reading →