Hadaha Daha : A Mythical Surrealism in Koirala’s Modiāin

* Keshav Raj Chalise, Ph D


B P Koirala’s Modiāin is a novel written from the viewpoint of a boy and his experience of visiting Darbhanga with Misirji. The narrator of the plot is a matured man, but he tells the whole story based on the memory of the past. One of the major issues of in the novel is the description of Hadaha Daha, its association with Mahabharata myth and the mysterious presence of a woman at the edge of the pond. This article tries to examine the picture of Hadaha Daha and its historicity from mythical surrealistic approach. 

Key words: surrealism, myth, fiction, imagination, eastern culture


Myth is a term derived from Greek word, ‘muthos‘ with complex history and meaning in which “Greek muthos is used to mean fiction” (Cuddon 525). Myths generate certain religious or spiritual narratives with the explanation of supra human features of life. Not only that, they have typical aspect of truths because “myth is always concerned with creation. Myth explains on how something came to exist” (526). Myth is not just for simply reading the form of narrative but it can also be interpreted. So there is not a single myth; there are many myths. Abrams supposes that “mythology is a religion” (Abrams 179), however myths that relate the narrative of creation necessarily talk about nature as one of the powers of creation. Such myths “are primitive explanations of the natural order and cosmic forces” (Cuddon 526). Therefore, the narratives that provide explanation on and about nature and its origin are nature myths.

These nature myths pass for many generations through the religious beliefs. So, sometimes the mythical stories and the religious stories are misread as the same. Religious and mythical narratives also provide the base of interpreting the things in the universe. The oldest interpretation of nature and the universe, therefore, is found in the way religion is perceived by the people of any particular period and place.

Myths are the stories of ancient or religious origin and are believed to be true in any particular cultural and social group. They are not merely fictional but are the experiences through which “a given culture ratifies its social customs or the accounts for the origins of human and natural phenomena” (Baldick 163). They provide the insights on the mode of understanding the things. They represent social and cultural belief of any particular period. They also represent the views of the people as the socio-cultural phenomena.

Surrealism, also known as super-realism, is an artistic movement close to twentieth century’s ‘Dada’ experiment. It was introduced and its idea was explained by Andre Breton in his book, Manifesto on Surrealism in 1924.  It is a successive movement of Dadaism emerged in 1916 “out of disgust with the brutality and destructiveness of the first world war” (Abrams 319). As opposed to the artistic constants, “the expressed aim of surrealism was a revolt against all restraints on free creativity, including logical reason, standard morality, social and artistic conventions and norms and all control over the artistic process by forethought and intention” (319). The surrealists believe on the automatic writing that promotes the expression of unconscious mind, hence, a psychological expression of a person. Continue reading →

Mentoring for EFL Teachers’ Professional Development


   * Gyanendra Kumar Yadav


Mentoring is gaining momentum in the teaching field as a means for teacher professional development throughout the globe. However, it seems a new approach to professional enhancement for language teachers in the Nepalese context; though, it has been in practice in other fields such as nursing, business and military. This paper attempts at analyzing the importance of mentoring for professional development of EFL teachers in Nepal. The paper is divided into three parts: first, it presents writer’s personal narrative of professional journey focusing on how a mentor shaped his life; next, it tries to define mentoring, its process and reasons behind it; and finally, it seeks to sheds light on the importance of mentoring in the Nepalese EFL context before going to conclusion.

Key words: coaching, mentoring, novice teacher, teacher development,support

My journey as a professional

I did my schooling from a governmental school in Nepal, where the medium of instruction was the Nepali language. Throughout my schooling, I got little exposure to the English language since there used to be only one period for English subject and even that would be taught in the mother tongue. As a result, I did not have a good proficiency in English even after completing my schooling. I could neither speak fluently nor write even a couple of paragraphs properly. Those days are still fresh in my memory when I would speak a sentence and struggle to frame other sentences to add further. It was not easy for me to do major in English. Above all, I had nothing except a dream to be an English teacher and strong passion to pursue it.

I met my mentor in the intermediate level, who taught me English for nearly a half decade. During this period, he helped me to enhance English language proficiency and guided me to achieve the best I could. After completing the intermediate level, I started teaching in a private school, while continuing my study side- by- side. During the early period of my teaching career, I had a tough time to balance both my study and teaching. No matter how much I tried, the tired body and mind, as a result of the whole day’s teaching, would refuse to pay attention to the college lectures at night. This bitter experience of teaching the whole day and attending college at night can hardly be understood by them who do not have such an experience. Sometimes, I would just think of quitting the job. During this critical period of my life when I had no hope for my career, my mentor was the one and only person to encourage, inspire and support me.

My mentor advised me to be a life member of Nepal English Language Teachers’ Association (NELTA) for my professional development. Joining NELTA happened to be a significant step in my professional career. It not only connected me with the wider ELT community but also gave me opportunities to meet ELT scholars from home and abroad during training and conferences. As a result, I got exposure to advanced ELT trends, approaches, methods and techniques. These assisted me immensely in my early period of teaching career. Continue reading →

Promises of Action Research Paradigm for Teachers’ Professional Development

                                                                                                                              * Pramod Sigdel


This paper discusses on one of the modalities of teacher’s professional development. As the teachers are the key persons to enhance quality learning, they must be empowered with knowledge, skill and attitude towards teaching and learning. A teacher only knows his or her classroom situations and obstacles hence, he/ she themselves must design and plan the activities which can facilitate and accelerate the learning opportunities for the learners. So, teachers should be empowered with the skills of identifying real classroom problems, designing intervention strategies to cope the problems and execution of their plan, rather than imposing theories and philosophies in the training. It is also because yesterday’s best practices are considered as obsolete today because of the rapid change in time and technological advancement. So, students’ needs and styles of learning are also getting diverse rapidly. Hence, to fulfill the present need of the students and to foster quality education, teachers must be equipped with action research skills. 

Key wordsTeachers’ Professional Development (TPD), action research, in-service training, intervention


Relating the activities done in the training sessions and taking them back to the real classroom is the most challenging task for the teachers who are working as in- service teachers in the context of Nepal. Last year, I went in one of the resource centers to deliver my session as a facilitator. We had to deliver nine sessions within three days and next two days would be our observation session as per the requirement of the program. Thinking that transfer of skills is the most challenging task for the teachers, we planned each session in such a way that all the teachers can get time to reflect back on their teaching practices, their setting and the ways to incorporate those learnt activities in their classes. We also asked our participants to think in which lesson they can use those activities and which learning need of the students a particular activity can address. Then, the participants had to share their reflective thinking being framed on those clues. As the sessions were delivered, that cycle would repeat. By the end of nine sessions, teachers did have different action plans to cope with the problems which they were facing earlier. Through their personal reflections, we came to know that they were eager to take back those learnt skills into their classroom practice. However, we were in doubt: how far they could mould these activities according to their situation, and how they would modify activities to achieve their intended objectives.

After a gap of three days, we went to the schools of the participants to observe their classroom teaching. They were able to use those activities tactfully even in a different environment from that of the training hall. Teachers were able to choose right activities to fulfill the intended aim of the lesson. They were able to modify the activities according to age level of the students, school environment and the physical environment of the classroom. We were astonished to see the performance of the teacher. This forced me to reflect back on the session plan we designed. I thought:  why are people saying that training does not go back to the class?  But here, it is absolutely transferred in a meaningful way. Then I thought about the action plan and the reflective thinking frame-work for the participants which we provided after each of the session. I became sure that this kind of practice helps teacher to develop professionally. Continue reading →

Practices of In- service Teacher Evaluation in Public Schools of Nepal

* Chet Nath Panta

* Nibedita Sharma

* Mahesh Adhikari

* Muna Thapa


This article is an out of a mini- research basically dealing with the current practices of teacher evaluation in general and practices of in- service teacher evaluation in particular in public schools of Nepal. The effective implementation of in- service teacher evaluation enhances the quality of public education system. The findings indicate that despite the provisions for in- service teacher evaluation, it has not been impactful in the context of Nepal.

Key words: Teacher’s professional development, in- service, quality education


We talk much about the public schools in Nepal, their lack of budget, lack of resources, lack of quality teachers and lack of quality education in general. The situation seems to be grim, and it may be so in many of these schools. Moreover, the question about the lack of quality teachers in public schools is the most concerning of all. If the teachers are hired through competitive public examinations and they receive trainings at regular intervals, then why is there an issue with their quality? The problem may lie in not how well the students perform in the subjects that these teachers teach, but in how well they are evaluated regarding their performance. Stronge & Tucker (2003) suggest that “without high quality evaluation systems, we cannot know if we have high quality teachers” (p. 3 as cited in Stronge, n.d.). It is only through evaluation of the practices of the teachers, which may include both external as well as self-evaluation that the teachers will be able to perform better. The role of the administration and the resource centres are key in monitoring and carrying out the external evaluation of the teachers. Atay (2007) points out that “considering teachers’ needs, experiences, and contexts as central, valuing their ideas, negotiating content, accepting teachers as experts, and encouraging them to reflect on their current beliefs and behaviors are important factors to induce long-lasting changes in teacher practices.”

Purpose of the study

The purpose of the study was to explore the practices of in-service teacher evaluation in public schools of Nepal. Likewise, we also wanted to understand the perceptions of the stakeholders and the teachers regarding the practices of in-service teacher evaluation.

 Research questions

The following research questions have been formulated to carry out thus research:

Overarching question:

  • What are the practices of in-service teacher evaluation in public schools of Nepal?

Sub- questions:

  1. What are the provisions of in-service teacher evaluation?
  2. How do teachers and stakeholders perceive the practice of in-service teacher evaluation in Nepal?

Research tools

For this mini- research, the researchers used semi- structured interview as the tool. We prepared two separate set of questions that were used to find out the opinion of the participants in the related topic.

Research participants

Initially, we were thinking that more the number of participants, the more we will understand this issue better. However, due to several reasons, we chose only four participants, one a headmaster, the other a resource person and two teachers. Continue reading →

Innovations and Co-teaching in Nepalese EFL Classroom


* Gokul Ghimire Sharma




Teachers are reflective practitioners and researchers who solve classroom problems and find their remedies. Teaching profession has been under a great threat in the Nepalese context. This write- up provides a reflective account of the experience the author had had while making a poster presentation about the challenges and opportunities of teaching English in light of the co- teaching methodology during the TESOL International Convention and Language Expo 2016 in Baltimore USA. Subsequent discussions reflect on the author’s experiences while attending the entire event. This piece consistently stresses that teachers can create innovations by adopting a co-teaching method.

Key words: innovation, remedy, pedagogy, TL



In the context of the modern world, teaching profession has become a great challenge and full of opportunities too.  There are lots of changes in teaching learning methodologies and pedagogies, which have posed challenges; on the other hand there are lots of possibilities of growth, research, and innovations too. English language teaching to non-native speakers has found easier ways than previous decades due to the development of ICT, global education and social media.

English Access Microscholarship Program in Nepal, sponsored by the US Embassy, has adopted a co- teaching approach. Teachers there are mentored by ELT experts in a very conducive environment to prepare the classroom activities creative and communicative. This allows teachers to use different participatory programs and activities inside and outside the classroom. As a result teachers can make the students experience different classroom modules besides their set and traditional regular classes. The students sing out loud, watch movies, visit different communities and serve, prepare reports and make presentations based on field visits, publish creative writing in newspapers, journals and classroom wall magazines. This approach, therefore, has become a wonderful weapon to sharpen students’ fluency and accuracy. Beside the classroom activities, both the teachers and students participate in different trainings, workshops, seminars, conferences, etc. to strengthen personal and professional skills. The teachers also visit different schools and colleges to help other students and teachers for introducing such skills to them.


TESOL diaries

Writing is not my cup of tea. Therefore, since the day I had started scrambling my abstract for the TESOL convention I had never imagined that the particular writing would ever win me a ticket for the TESOL International Convention and Language Expo 2016 to Baltimore, USA. Getting the paper accepted was like a dream coming true. Attending TESOL International Convention and Language Expo 2016 was indeed a dream-come-true. I have been participating in the NELTA international conferences since 2005. I was the first time attendee at the TESOL convention, but the experience I collected is ineradicable. I had heard stories from the participants from Nepal about the TESOL Convention in the past, but after being a part of 2016 convention I felt that I was one of the luckiest people in the world. Along with it, getting a grant from the RELO in the US embassy in Nepal has brought a lifelong impression in my professional career. My participation in the convention was just possible because of the grant I got from the Regional English Language Office (RELO), U.S. Embassy. My poster presentation entitled ‘Innovations and Co-teaching in the Nepalese EFL Classroom’ was accepted by the TESOL.

During the convention, I got to interact with about 6500 ELT professionals participating in such a huge organization that organizes. It was a mega event an ELT practitioner should never miss once in a life time.  The most amazing thing about TESOL is to see how well events like the keynote speech, planarians’ speech and concurrent sessions are organized for a colossal participation of the delegates from around the world. One cannot even envision how the core sessions like the Poster Presentation, Electronic Village, Master Students Forum, Doctorate Students Forum, Affiliate Workshop and Interest Section are handled by the efficient organizers of TESOL. I have been participating in the NELTA International Conferences for 12 years. NELTA conferences used to be a Kumba Mela for the ELT professionals in Nepal.  English teachers from Nepal and abroad meet once a year in Kathmandu for professional development. But it is TESOL participation which is grand!! Other remarkable events that impressed me in TESOL convention are; research-focused sessions, book exhibition and the poster session hall, the management of ongoing concurrent sessions, discussions, meetings, talk programs, poster presentations by ELT experts from around the globe. Continue reading →

Welcome to the NELTA ELT Forum, June 2017 Issue


“Writers live twice.”
—Natalie Goldberg

We would like to begin June issue editorial from a powerful three-word quote by American writer, Natalie Goldberg (mentioned above). Of course, writers live twice and this is the amazing sole power of writing. Writing contributes to the author’s own community at the minor scale and to the world at micro scale. Having realized the potential of writing, NELTA ELT Forum is working with a wider ELT writing community to spread out their valued voices to a larger ELT audience. It is our pleasure to say that as of now, we have been receiving a number of write-ups, the very special contribution from the established ELT academia, researchers, trainers and classroom teachers who are the ‘soul’ of this forum. These very diverse authors have made our forum so lively and engaging as a result we are living or our existence has been possible. Similarly, another important part of our Forum is our readers who are encouraging us by reading the posts regularly and providing their valued comments.

At this point, we would like to say that we are much sorry that due to some technical difficulties, we could not bring our regular issues for some months. However, it is equally our pleasure that NELTA ELT Forum is coming up with the new issues along with a new team members. We would like to thank the former team for their warm support and especial contribution. It is always the former team who is guiding the new team. We will try to march ahead following the way they paved and of course at times, we may walk little farther in course of exploration or we may try to create a new trail as well which we think would help our readers to give a new taste.

As far as this issue is concerned, we are bringing some gripping ELT issues from our especial contributors in this issue. On the first post, Dr. Binod Luitel accentuates a need of research on vocabulary instruction and reading comprehension with some strong theoretical underpinnings. His context-appropriate advocacy will be a major takeaway for our readers. We completely agree with Dr. Luitel that classroom-based experimental research and vocabulary survey can be essentially a good means to modify curriculum and textbook which could offer some space to translanguaging and creative writing practice. They can further build a way to depth of processing theory and reading plus approach. Similarly, in the second post, Ammar Bahadur Singh presents his critical view on MOOCs and shows some importance of MOOC in Nepalese contexts. He explicates that MOOC has the affordances to bring economic transformation in a country as it helps to build and enhance the society of knowledge. He also posits that MOOCs provide teachers the unique opportunity to enrich their professionalism as they get into the network of communities of practice. Amar foresees that the extended values of MOOCS, such as it can help sustain ethnic values if the contents in MOOC are developed in local languages and on the basis of local needs and demands. Thirdly, Bhanu Chandra Joshi in his article suggests for the use of eclectic approach in English language teaching. He claims that no methodology fits to all contexts as there several influencing factors such as available resources in the classrooms, the learners’ background, and teachers’ pedagogical and content knowledge and so on. Last but not least, the article by Dharmananda Joshi talks about the ongoing discussion on the use of mother tongue in a language classroom. As there’s a practice of either no use or over-use of mother tongue in private and public schools of Nepal respectively, the understanding of judicious use of mother tongue as he claims for in his writing is necessary for language teachers and other concerned stakeholders. In this sense, this article has also some relation to the advocacy of translanguaging by Binod Luitel in this same issue.

For your ease, we have hyperlinked each post of this issue below:

  1. Envisioning Vocabulary Enhancement vis-à-vis Reading Pedagogy in ESL Context by Dr. Binod Luitel
  2. Massive Open Online Courses (MOOCs): Opportunities and challenges for learning by Ammar Bahadur Singh
  3. Use of Eclectic Approach in English Language Teaching by Bhanu Chandra Joshi
  4. Judicious Use of Mother Tongue in EFL Classroom: Some Considerations by Dharmanand Joshi

We hope you will enjoy reading this issue. Please drop your comments to the posts that you will read.

Happy reading!


Issue Editors,

Sagun Shrestha

Laxmi Prasad Ojha