We are pleased to present a special edition corresponding to the months of November-December 2017. In this issue, we are delighted to have contributions focused on teachers’ reflections concerning the teaching and learning process of the writing skill. Such views represent two different perspectives: one derived from the experiences of participating teachers in a three-day training on ‘Integrated Writing Skill’; and the other derived from a teacher’s reflective practice. On the other hand, this issue also includes a study on strategies in the translation of metaphorical expressions on a literary text. In the following lines, you have an overview of each write-up:
The article A Training Reflection on Integrated Writing Skills, by Jagadish Paudel and Bhagirathi Joshi, presents the trainees’ experiences and practices on writing-how they were taught writing during a three-day training workshop; how they are teaching writing; and why writing is considered a difficult task. Likewise, it discusses on topic sentence, supporting details, the points to be considered while editing an essay, and ways of reducing empty words. Further, it includes participants’ writings that were written during the training.
Dr. Nabaraj Neupane in his article, Metaphorical Expressions (MEs): Strategies and Pitfalls of Translation in Seto Bagh, shows how translating metaphorical expressions involve twin problems of recognition and translation, yet it is mainly the case of appropriation in one way or the other. He conducted a study based on an observational research design to explore strategies in the translation of MEs in the historical novel Seto Bāgh.
Last but not least, Janak Singh Negi, in his article Involving Shy Students into Group Work in an Interactive EFL Classroom, discusses the causes of shyness among the students in an EFL class. Based on an empirical study, suggests some practical solutions for involving shy students into group work effectively.
For ease of access, the link for each article can be found below:
- A Training Reflection on Integrated Writing Skills, by Jagadish Paudel and Bhagirathi Joshi
- Metaphorical Expressions (MEs): Strategies and Pitfalls of Translation in Seto Bagh by Dr. Nabaraj Neupane
- Involving Shy Students into Group Work in an Interactive EFL Classroom by Janak Singh Negi
We hope that the articles included in this issue may contribute to reflection and future research, and may enhance a critical perspective about various aspects related to writing, culture, translation and classroom pedagogy when teaching English, whether as a second, foreign or additional language.
Maricarmen Gamero and Laxmi Prasad Ojha
*Jagadish Paudel, Bhagirathi Joshi
This write-up reflects a three-day trainers’ training on ‘Integrated Writing Skill’. It deals with the trainees’ experiences and practices on writing-how they were taught writing; how they are teaching writing; why writing is considered a difficult task. Likewise, it discusses on topic sentence, supporting details, the points to be considered while editing an essay, and ways of reducing empty words. Further, it includes participants’ writings that were written during the training. At the end, a successful story of a participant on teaching writing has been presented.
Keywords: Experience, practice, reflection, training, writing.
In today’s world, especially in academic sphere, writing is considered as most important skill. So, those people who are associated with the academic sphere tempt to improve their writing skill. It can be improved through a myriad of ways. For instance, it can be developed by attending conferences, training sessions, workshops, online courses and so on. In order to be a good writer, a person is required to go through various processes and should have rigorous practices. The writer should be familiar theoretically as well as practically with the idea of writing topic sentence, controlling idea, introduction, supporting details, maintaining coherence and cohesion, use of a wide range of vocabularies and syntactically varied sentences, concluding, mechanics of writing, (small letter, capital letter, comma, semi-comma, full stop, questions mark, indentation, paragraphing) brain-storming ideas, making notes, structuring ideas, planning, drafting ideas, proof-reading, editing and revising. Thus, a good writer should have knowledge of all these integrative writing skills. The following write-up presents reflection on a three days integrated writing skills training. Continue reading →
*Dr. Nabaraj Neupane
Metaphorical expressions (MEs) are profusely used in both literary and non-literary texts. However, they are backbones of literary texts. They exhibit culture-specificity and therefore their translation necessitates going across the nuances of meaning. As translation crosses the barriers of languages and cultures, ME translation is possible, although the translators should be aware of sensitivity and sensibility of the products. Translating MEs involve twin problems of recognition and translation, yet it is mainly the case of appropriation in one way or the other. In light of this context, this study was conducted to explore strategies in the translation of MEs in the historical novel Seto Bāgh. By way of descriptive observational research design, I reached the conclusion that these strategies are fruitful for translating MEs: cultural appropriation, paraphrase, partial omission, and complete omission. The study implies that the translators should keep cultural appropriation at his/her first preference; nevertheless, they can use omission as a last resort.
Keywords: Cultural appropriation, metaphorical expressions, omission, paraphrase, strategies.
Metaphorical expressions (MEs, henceforth) generally contain figures of speech like metaphors, similes, metonyms, and personification of abstractions; and extended expressions like phrasal verbs, idioms, and proverbs, to mention but a few. To understand MEs, an insight into metaphor is necessary. The term ‘metaphor’ comes from Greek ‘metapherein‘, which means ‘to transfer’ or ‘to carry over’ (Al-Hasnawi, 2007, p. 1; & Abdullah & Shuttleworth, 2013, p. 610). This is echoed by Newmark (1981 & 1988) views. To put in Newmark’s (1981) advocacy, “Words are not things. On Martinet’s model, we may regard words as the first articulation [sic] of meaning and since all symbols are metaphors or metonyms replacing their objects, all words are therefore metaphorical” (p. 84). He further classifies metaphors into two types: one word metaphors and complex metaphors, which range from two or more words or idioms, through nearly all the proverbs to complete texts. However, in 1988, Newmark revises his definition as, “By metaphor, I mean any figurative expression: the transferred sense of a physical word, the personification of an abstraction, the application of a word or collocation […] and most English phrasal verbs are potentially metaphorical” (p. 104). To take a sense of this definition, figurative expression in any form is metaphorical. Thus, metaphor includes from a word, a phrase, a clause, a sentence, an idiom, a proverb, an allegory, to a whole text. However, there is a condition that the expression should present one thing for another. Therefore, metaphor is an implicit way of describing some entity, event, or quality comprehensively and concisely. Continue reading →
*Janak Singh Negi
Group work is one of the best tools to enhance communicative proficiency of the students. But, it is very common in an EFL context that some of the students (shy/introvert) do not take part actively in the group work. The present study attempts to investigate the causes of shyness among the students. The findings showed that shy students do not have the opportunity to express themselves in the class due to the dominance of the extrovert ones. This stops them from taking part in the classroom activities resulting into lack of interest in the lesson. I also suggest some practical solutions for involving the shy students into group work effectively in the classroom.
Keywords: English language teaching, group work, shy ttudents
The field of English language teaching has undergone many shifts and trends over the last few decades. Many methods have come and gone in search for the effective way of teaching English. It was in 1970s, the reaction in traditional language teaching approaches (such as audio-lingualism, situational language teaching) began (Richards, 2006). As a result, ELT practitioners devoted their time in search for the new trends in this field which has brought the worldwide shift in teaching methods and techniques giving more emphasis on communication, as a result communicative language teaching methodology emerged (Cook, 2001). What has emerged from this time is a variety of communicative language teaching methodologies based on the assumption that the primary function of language use is for communication.
So far as ELT is concerned, its crucial aim is to enhance the speaker’s ability to use language appropriately rather than to have grammatical knowledge (Richards & Rodgers, 2001). It means the main purpose of language teaching is to develop communicative competency, which can be defined as the speaker’s ability to use language effectively in the real world context. It requires the participants to produce and understand unlimited, even unpredictable and unfamiliar exponents despite the limitation of their language knowledge. Basically, communicative competency is mainly concerned with: Continue reading →