Monthly Archives: September, 2014


Short Stories in EFL Classes

    Tirtha Karki* (                                                 


Recently, I visited a private school of Itahari and discussed with English teachers of that school, their problems of teaching English. Many of them reported that they were having trouble in engaging students to write a story. And, they suggested incorporating story developing activities in an upcoming training. I was overwhelmed by the situation. Thus, I started to explore the activities which enable the learners to create their own stories easily. In the training of English teachers of that school, for teachers from primary to secondary level, I delivered some sessions on engaging students to generate short stories. I offered them some activities which are useful to involve learners to develop short stories. Later on, when I discussed with the teachers, they stated that the activities worked effectively with their learners.  Therefore, here, I have attempted to collect some activities which may be useful to engage the learners to generate stories collaboratively. These activities, I suppose, can be useful in your class as well.


Literature has been the most important resources in language classroom. Almost all language teaching programs have incorporated literary texts in their syllabi as they offer valuable authentic resources. In this respect, Collie and Slater (2009, PP. 3-4) mention that literature is used in language class because it is valuable authentic material; it enhances cultural and language enrichment, and it fosters personal involvement.  Similarly, Littlewood (2000, as cited in Pardede, 2011) argues for using literature in EFL classes saying that:

A major problem of language teaching in the classroom is the creation of an   authentic situation for language. All language classrooms, especially those outside the community of native speakers, are isolated from the context of events and situations which produce natural language. Literature can overcome this problem because, in literary works, language creates its own context. The actual situation of the reader becomes immaterial as he or she looks on the events created by language. These events create, in turn, a context of situation for the language of the book and enable it to transcend the artificial classroom situation (p. 179). Continue reading →



Multi-grade and Multi level Teaching

Joya Ssenchowa* (


As a primary  teacher of government  school in  rural areas, I got  the  opportunity to attend  the Hornby Regional  school on “Low Resource Classroom’ , which was  held  in  kathmandu, Nepal last year. There I got to meet many teachers from South-East Asia including Nepal who were not quite aware of Multi-grade teaching. There I had to answer a lots of questions from  other  teacher friends about what is  Multi-grade teaching  and  how it can be  practiced  best in a  classroom. That situation made me ponder about the topic. I  thought of  bringing  out  my  ideas  and  my  experience  on  Multi-grade teaching  to  forefront.  This article  is the  outcome  of that urge to  share  what I know  about  multi-grade/level teaching  and  how it can  be  successfully  implemented  in the classroom.

Teaching more than one grade at the same time in a classroom by   teacher is known as Multi-grade teaching. The Multi-grade teaching is not a new concept in our system of education in India.  This system was followed in our traditional “Gurukul” method.  Even today, this Multi-grade teaching is being  practiced in many  schools.

Multi- Level Teaching

Teaching of students or groups having different level of achievements in a classroom by a teacher at the same time is called multi-level teaching.

In multi- level teaching, a teacher teaches the content to the students of different learning levels or skills or abilities. All learners do not possess the same level of learning ability. As a result, a teacher has to apply appropriate techniques, approach, technology and learning method to enhance the students, achievement skills in multi-level teaching.

Multi- grade level teaching method is not only followed in India, but also in other parts of the world. Multi- grade teaching in the primary level is in seen in countries like Philiphines, Vietnam, Lakshadeep, China, Pakistan, Indonesia, Nepal, Australia, England, Canada, Germany and USA. Continue reading →